Saturday, February 18, 2006

Cytokines and the Hippocampus and Hypothalamus

Entrez PubMed

1: J Neuroimmunol. 1990 Aug;28(3):201-8. Related Articles, Links

Muramyl-dipeptide, a macrophage-derived cytokine, alters neuronal activity in hypothalamus and hippocampus but not in the dorsal raphe/periaqueductal gray of rats.

Dougherty PM, Dafny N.

Department of Neurobiology and Anatomy, University of Texas Medical School, Houston 77225.

Muramyl-dipeptide (MDP) is derived in vivo by degradation of bacteria cell walls and is the minimum fragment that stimulates the acute phase response to bacterial infection. The present study investigates whether this specific product of an immune response affects central nervous system (CNS) function. To this end, the activity of single neurons within the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and dorsal raphe/periaqueductal gray region prior to and following systemic (i.p.) injection was studied. The results obtained from a total of 120 cells demonstrate that single hypothalamic and hippocampal neurons, sites previously shown to aid in the integration of various environmental stimuli into physiologic processes, alter their neuronal activity in site-specific manners following MDP administration. The specificity of the responses included both the threshold for activation of particular sites, effects of increasing dosages upon response pattern characteristics, and time course to the changes observed. These results therefore suggest that MDPs may play a role in the neuro-immunologic regulatory pathways during the immune response to bacterial infection.

PMID: 2373761 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Remember I keep talking about how infectious and inflammatory agents can cause brain changes----I am apparently not insane, or under the influence of cytokine induced psychosis, as this will plainly show. I cannot tell you how exciting it is to have all my millions of questions answered in tiny little ways. I am forever grateful that there is information available at every turn, because it shows just how blind some people are to the possibilities that diseases of the mind are not all under an individuals control.


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